Ian R. Mitchell - Walking in Glasgow's East End

Around Brigton Cross - Glasgow's Changing East-End

Photo: Art Deco Hotel.

Where would you find a Venetian palace, a Byzantine mausoleum and the Shipka Pass? In the Balkan peninsula certainly, but if you didn't want to go so far from home you could just take a wee daunder for a mile or so instead around Bridgeton Cross in Glasgow's East End.

The experience of urban rambling is sadly underrated, and mainly limited to the obviously tourist cities. This was not always the case, and before 1950 exploration in our industrial cities was more widespread. In Glasgow for example there are many books from half a century ago and more, giving its inhabitants tips about and guides to places to walk; James Cowan's From Glasgow's Treasure Chest for example. With the Urban Renaissance going on around us in the increasingly post-industrial cities, especially Glasgow, it is high time to re-invent this tradition.

The territories to the east of Glasgow Cross might seems at first infertile regions with which to begin such a project. Certainly this is an area which has had a decidedly bad press, exceeded only possibly by that of the Gorbals. Those who know Glasgow from 'No Mean City' type hearsay will associate the East End with razor gangs, Billy Boy sectarianism, and some of the worst housing in Europe. My surnamesake James Leslie Mitchell (aka Lewis Grassic Gibbon) stated in the 1930s in The Scottish Scene that hereabouts "over a hundred and fifty thousand human beings living in such conditions as the most bitterly pressed primitive in Tierra del Feugo never envisaged." An exaggeration certainly, but containing a deal of truth. One thing that would astonish Gibbon is that today the population of Glasgow's East End area is probably not a quarter of the number he quoted. Several parliamentary constituencies -including Brigton itself which was the Red Clydesider Independent Labour Party rebel John Maxton's seat - have disappeared. And it was a protest at housing conditions as much, if not more, than industrial exploitation, which swept Maxwell to power in the 1920s. Maxton was not from Brigton, but he taught in Green Street school here and represented the area in Westmister from 1922 till his death in 1946. They used to say they weighed, not counted, his votes, and he was revered and loved by the local population.

Photo: Ragged School.

Around 1914 Glasgow had over a million people and was the Second City of the Empire; it was, as is less well known, the Sixth City in the whole of Europe in size. It produced three quarters of the Empire's ships, half its locomotives and huge amounts of other heavy industrial equipment. Since the 1960s Glasgow has haemorrhaged population; today there are about 625,000 inhabitants. In thirty years Glasgow has lost population at a rate of almost 10,000 a year. Put another way, that means that each decade since 1970 Glasgow lost more population that the entire Highlands during the whole century of Highland Clearances!

Nowhere have these effects of Glasgow's industrial decline been as visible as in the East End. Indeed, there started the ill fated Glasgow East Area Renewal (GEAR) project in the 1970s, where huge areas of substandard housing were cleared and attempts were made to attract new manufacturing industry to the area to replace the large works which had closed down or were in decline. These included Beardmore's Parkhead Forge which during the wars employed 20,000 men, the Arrol Bridge and Crane Works, Anderson Strathclyde mining machinery and many more proud names in Scottish industrial history. Half a billion pounds certainly cleared the slums, but the new industries didn't come - and the people left. It was Brigton No More! A recent OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) report on Glasgow said it was developing a two track economy; bands of remarkable regeneration and prosperity, alongside areas of continuing deprivation and exclusion; this certainly applies to the East End. Let's go Walkabout. Take the train to Brigton Station and emerge into the light at Brigton Cross.

At the Cross itself is one of Glasgow's best cast iron productions, the 50ft high Umbrella, complete with clock tower, originally built to shelter the unemployed in 1875. Unlike most public cast iron work in Glasgow it was not produced at the Saracen Foundry in Possil, but by the Sun Foundry. One has to look hard, I admit, for an urban renaissance in the immediate vicinity of the Cross, but there are things of interest. In Laudressy Street, next to the Public Library stood till the mid 1980s the Bridgeton Working Men's Club. Clubs like this one, founded in 1865, though latterly becoming mainly drinking quarters, initially provided places of entertainment and instruction for the working man before 1914. And in radical Brigton there was no more popular reading than the poems of Burns. The Bridgeton Burns Club, founded in 1870 became the largest in the world, with 1,400 members, and it sponsored competitions in local schools for the recitation and signing of the bards works.

Photo: Ragged School.

From the Cross a stroll along London Road and then up Fielden Street takes you past some of the less imaginative 1970s council housing, and some of the best of its more recent rivals at filling the vast waste sites in the area. Certainly it is a patchy picture, but Miles Better than the situation which appalled me on my arrival in Glasgow thirty years ago, well described by William Barr in Glasgwegiana (1973),

You are struck by the general scene of decay and neglect that pervades the area. Street after street of tall tenements stand empty, their shattered windows open and gaping to the sky. Broken glass lies in profusion on the streets and the unchecked running water floods into the street the engineering works, mills and factories have been closed down leaving Bridgeton with the appearance of a ghost town.

Turning back west along the Gallowgate you pass on one side St Mungo's Academy, recently renovated under the controversial Scools 2002 Private Public Partnership scheme, but balanced against that on the other side of the street is the fabulous Art Deco Bellgrove Hotel - now run-down and used as a Model Lodging House. Possibly not the best image to encourage young scholars to a life of study. Next along is the former meat and cattle market, one of Glasgow's many nineteenth century civic markets, whose façade has been lovingly retained though the market is no longer used. Aside from the astounding façade there are many things around here to interest. At the back end of Graham Square is the eighteenth century inn (now housing) where the cattle dealers and drovers would reside during sales, while outside shawlie-wifies would queue for pails of blood with which to make black puddings and combat anaemia in their weans. While much of the huge site of the market remains sadly derelict and littered, Graham Square hosts a development of housing association properties of the highest social and architectural merit, which won a Saltire Award in 2001

A walk up Bellgrove Street takes you to Duke Street. Turning west you soon pass below below the Necropolis. Though technically outwith Brigton. Glasgow's graveyard for its wealthy citizens is well worth a visit, especially now that it has been largely restored. Below it is found probably the only large scale factory left in this area; the Tennent's Brewery, which, ironically, must also be the oldest industrial undertaking in the city, dating from 1556. In the Necropolis are Gothic tombs and Byzantine mausoleums some of which are bigger than the average single-end that most people in and around Bridgeton once inhabited. But that there were better class tenements here is shown by the rosy sandstone survival on Hunter Street, opposite the Tennent's Brewery, a fine building with elaborate bas-reliefs of brewing trade (the tenement belonged to Tennents). It has to be admitted though, that not many of the buildings in this area were of this standard, and few of the nineteenth century tenements remain.

Photo: Ragged School.

Heading south again by Barrack Street (so called because troops were stationed there in the early nineteenth century as a counter measure to local radicalism) takes you back to the Gallowgate and then past the Barrowland ballroom to the Barras, the world centre of reset goods, hucksters, conmen - and the odd bargain. In the most daring move yet, a former clay pipe factory and subsequent warehouse next the Barras is being coverted into flats for sale, in the middle price range, showing that regeneration is slowly reaching the obscurer corners of the city. However a few steps further towards Glasgow Cross and you are reminded this is Glasgow, not Hampstead. The curiously named Shipka Pass (after a battle in a forgotten Balkan war) hosts a market whose proprietor Mr. Barton clearly feels the Barras has sold out to Yuppiedom. Its signs display a weird mixture of erudition and self-revelling Glasgow grottiness. How much longer will this survive? Glasgow without such gallus cheek would not be the same.

Cross the London Road from Shipka Pass and you are heading for St Andrews Square, which could be the surprise of your day if you don't know the city. A recent housing development in traditional style flanks the St Andrews Church, one of the gems of Glasgow's ecclesiastic architecture, and now an Arts Centre and Restaurant. The Church, finished in 1757, was modelled on St Martin's in the Fields in London to a design by Dreghorn and boasts magnificent rococo plasterwork inside. Just south on the corner of Greendyke Street is the Kirk of St Andrews by the Green, known as the Whistlin Kirk or the Piskie Kirk, finished seven years earlier. Apparently the first Episcopalian place of worship to be built in the city after 1689, the mason who built it was excommunicated by the Glasgow Presbytery; the fact that the Kirk had an organ gave it its name. Again imaginative thinking has restored it as Housing Association offices, and the graveyards have also been renovated. The existence of such prestigious kirks here reminds us that, unlike other industrial areas of Glasgow like Govan or Springburn, the East End developed beside, and then overwhelmed, an area inhabited by the upper echelons of the Dear Green Place. The University itself backed onto this area, till its scholars fled to the West End in the 1870s.

The Whistlin Kirk(as well as a pub of that name!) faces Glasgow Green itself. Around the Green are social contradictions you would be hard to find in any other city; Glasgow grot cheek by jowl with futuristic urban renewal. A stone's throw from the Green is Paddy's Market where the poorest come and buy things most of us would be embarassed at throwing away; throw the stone the other way and we have the Homes for the Future, staggeringly effective models for urban living built for the Year of Architecture in 1999 - and snapped up despite the six-figure price tags, showing that many people want to live city centre. And why ever not? The view over the Green and the Clyde from these houses, to the Cathkin Braes in the far south, is worth a mortgage itself.

And seeking refreshments in this region is an adventure. There is the international fusion cuisine of the Café Source in St Andrews Kirk, or under the disused railway bridge by Paddy's is a devils kitchen Snack Bar serving ham ribs and cabbage to the market's shoppers and Salvation Army residents sheltering under the bridge. Where else can such a choice of eateries - with just about everything in between- be had in such a small area?

The Green is also a salutary reminder of many of the good things about the old East End, which should not be forgotten. It was here that the early trades unions held their demonstrations, from the striking Calton Weavers in 1787 to the UCS work-in in the 1970s, and where the suffragettes and temperance fighters staged their rallies. The Green was always a demotic place, the population originally having the right to dry their clothes and graze their animals on it, and later with the Glasgow Fair spilling onto the Green from the 1840s. Generations of tanner ba football enthusiasts honed their skills there. The Green was the first home of Rangers F.C., and even today Brigton and Rangers are held, shall we say, to have a certain special relationship. It is fitting that Glasgow's People's Palace, a museum to its rich working class life, is located there, and that a major renewal programme is preparing the Green for the new century, supported by Heritage Lottery and Scottish National Heritage funding. Central to this is the restoration of the Doulton Fountain from the Empire Exhibition of 1888, at present fenced off to prevent further vandalism. Described as "an exuberant terracotta wedding cake" it celebrates an Empire at its apogee; that a bolt of lightning shattered Victoria at its summit in 1894 was possibly a reminder that nothing lasts for ever.

Glasgow's East End has traditionally put its best face to the Green, with the now vanished Monteith Row being originally composed of grand town houses; these later were converted into slum warrens and are now all gone, apart from one building which house a Hotel, often, and in this case, a euphemism hereabouts for a Lodging House. Yet a few hundred yards away is the Inn on the Green, one of Glasgow's uppest-market eateries and hotels. Another prestige address was Charlotte Street, where town mansions housed entrepreneurs such as David Dale, one of the founders of Glasgow's cotton industry. His house, built in 1782, is the only one remaining, and has thankfully been saved by conversion into housing association dwellings- winning another Saltire Award in 1990. J.G. Lockhart, Walter Scott's son in law and biographer died in Charlotte Street, while James Stuart Blackie, the eminent Greek scholar, was born there. At the eastern end of the Green there is another example of this areas rich built legacy, one of the world's most amazing factories - Templeton's carpet factory, now, like so many of the industries of the past, closed. William Leiper's 1889 design, based on the Doge's Palace in Venice, and faced in polychrome brick overcame the initial resistance of the City Council to have a factory on the Green itself, and the Kooncil duly purchased its carpets from Templeton's for decades. What is less well known is that a fault in design led to the collapse of the façade killing 29 workers, and it had to be rebuilt. The factory has escaped demolition by being converted into offices and smaller workspaces, but employing many less than its former workforce.

A short distance east of Templeton's on McPhail Street is the former Greenview School, a splendid building , originally the mansion of the cotton baron, MacPhail, and dating from 1846. The philanthropist James Buchanan left £30,000 for its conversion into a school "for the maintenance and instruction of destitute children." The year after the Education Act of 1872, which made education compulsory, the delightful Young Scholar in studious pose, was carved in sandstone by William Brodie and placed atop the building. This, along with the adjacent Logan and Johnstone School of Domestic Economy, which a Beehive bas relief tells us was "Instituted in 1890", provided instruction for generations of Brigton bairns, but have long been surplus to requirements. They are in the process of being converted into flatted dwellings, to bring new life to old buildings, and help arrest the area's depopulation. A pleasant continuation to the Shawfield Bridge brings the Green to an end. Here at Flesher's Haugh can be found a headless statue of James Watt, whose epoch-making discoveries regarding the steam engine,came to him while walking hereabouts. It was his invention that allowed industry to move into towns from the water-powered countryside, and laid the basis for the industrialisation of Glasgow. Surely his headless torso is no fitting memorial? Or maybe, given de-industrialisation, it actually is.

Photo: Tennent Caledonian Breweries.

As one heads northwards to Brigeton Cross up Main Street, the adjoining Mill Street, Poplin Street and Muslin Street (and Dale Street) remind you that before heavy engineering this was cotton country, and hereabout lie the gaunt ruins of former mills, like the huge Carstairs Street Cotton Mill, awaiting a new use, or more likely demolition. The weaving period left its legacy of song. Many will have heard the words of the Calton Weaver which was written here; but not so many know that Alex Rodger, another weaver-poet, wrote The Muckin o Geordies Byre in Brigton. So the areas musical traditions are not only those of Billy-Boy doggerel. Around this area signs of regeneration are few, and we are definitely in the land of Dookits and back-alley Boxing Clubs. Soon we are back at the Cross where we started a couple of hours ago, and we have only scratched the surface of this fascinating area. I have not even mentioned (so will now) The Saracen Head Inn, built in 1754, where the old stagecoach used to depart for its 12 day journey to London, (or the Sarry Heid as it is locally known - even Sorry Heid - by hangover sufferers). Wordsworth and Burns - as well as Johnson and Boswell- visited here at the time when it was the rendezvous of the town's elite. A huge five-gallon punch bowl from the Sarry Heid, now in the People' s Palace, commemorates the drinking bouts of those days. The East End may never become a major tourist destination but in a couple of miles radius from Brigton Cross there is more to see and think on than in many more salubrious areas of Glasgow.

Being located so close to the city's thriving centre, with its expanding commercial activities and increased demand for housing, Brigton is better placed than many other post-industrial areas to benefit from Glasgow's re-invention of itself as a city of the future rather than the past. But real problems remain. The old Parkhead Forge will never return, and the new Forge shopping centre employs only a small percentage of its former workforce in largely unskilled low-paid jobs; the good jobs in the post industrial city are not ones for which Brigton's residents are qualified, And we cannot forget that Brigton lies within that Glasgow which is the cancer and heart attack capital of Europe. But walking around its streets, though it causes me occasional anger, does not cause me despair; I always return from Brigton uplifted. There is hope if the motto of the Bridegton Working Men's Club is followed:
Learn from the past / Use well the future

Ian R. Mitchell, 2002.

Copyright I.R. Mitchell

Comments

I was born at No.5 Lanarks St.behind Charlotte St in 1947. above the Bowlers Rest pub.There are photos of the tenement view on Greendyke and the Camp Coffee factory was beside the tenement ...The back of Our lady and St Francis was in our St and everyone used to climb the wall and steal the coal which was stored over a high wall in Lanark St.I would love to hear from anyone who stayed there and perhaps share some recollections. My great Grandparent stayed in Sydney st at the turn of the 1900s.I remember the Model for the homeless and the salvation armmy Hostel..great times..god bless the Calton

john Mulgrew | Mon Feb 24 2014

Also he says maxton taught in green street a school in brigton? Green street is in the Calton and the school your talking about is st.james's

Patrick Martin | Tue Nov 05 2013

For the life of me I don't know why the guy that wrote this keeps mentioning brigton on his walk about 3 quarters of his walk isn't even in brigton. Had too laugh when he says that tennents brewery technically isn't in brigton technically for god sake it's about 2 miles away from brigton you've got too get through the calton too get to duke street.

Patrick Martin | Tue Nov 05 2013

my gran was brought up in barrack street i used to love visiting her there

geana cowie | Fri Oct 18 2013

@ Anthony Mcvey, Theres a few photos on the Mitchell virtual website. My Granny Elizabeth Ross nee Mcvey brought her family up at number 16 Sydney street. Most likely related.

Steven Ross | Sun Feb 03 2013

wouid love some help tracing my birth mother agnes johnston/nee porter iwas born in elgin street in 1959 and stayed ther with my sister nan and brother billy we then moved to dunphail drive .before the family split up

linda logan | Tue Jun 19 2012

Hi to all. Anyone out there have any knowledge of the Malarkeys from Calton? They stayed in Stevenson Street and Abercromby Sreet prior to that. My Grandfather was John Joseph and he had brothers Hugh, Charlie, Tommy and Peter and Sisters Ellen, Jessie, and Margaret who died very young. Best wishes, Gerry.

Gerry Mellon | Wed Nov 23 2011

Hi am doing some family history research and come across an ancestor who was apparently Chaplain of Greendyke Model Home c1880. Struggling to find out much information about what Greendyke Home actually was and in fact my ancestor seems to have gone from Pastry Baker to Bakehouse Inspector to Chaplain, and with no records of him being an ordained miniseter (church of scotland) his actual vocation is a bit confused. Any information would be appreciated.

Malcolm Riddell | Mon Sep 26 2011

born in sydney st no 23, 1957. most of famly lived no9.their was photos on walls in weemans pub sydney st/ gallogate, there is a pub in gallogate just about graham sq ma be photos in that one.

j healy | Thu Jul 21 2011

born in sydney st no 23, 1957. most of famly lived no9.their was photos on walls in weemans pub sydney st/ gallogate, there is a pub in gallogate just about graham sq ma be photos in that one.

j healy | Thu Jul 21 2011

SOME GREAT MEMORIES GROWING UP IN PARKHEAD IN THE EARLY 70S.WE USED TO LIVE IN A TENEMENT RIGHT INFRONT OF THE OLD PARKHEAD FORGE.JOSEPH LAMB MY DAD SON OF JAMES (GINGER) LAMB LIVED IN THE AREA MOST OF THEIR LIVES.FOND MEMORIES OF BEING A CHILD LOOKING AFTER PEOPLES CARS WHILE THEY WENT TO THE CELTIC GAMES.I STILL GOT FAMILY IN THE CALTON GREEN STREET THOMAS LAMB WHO I VISIT AND WE DO ALL THE PUBS ON THE GALLOWGATE.

richard lamb | Tue Jun 28 2011

Anyone got photos of Sydney Street in the 1940/1950s?

James Brown | Sat Feb 19 2011

My family is from the Calton for many years. I myself from Barrowfield, Attending Barrowfield School and Bernards Street School. Also worked at A&J Gelfers in Dora St. This is in the 40's,50's,60's. Still have my family there. Have a million memories of the Locarno Dancing, Palais, Barrowland. Also all of the Bridgeton area.

Cathie Dicks | Wed Jan 26 2011

A very interesting walk! I wish I had known about this when visiting Glasgow recently - although, by chance, I did cover some of the area. I have very recently discovered that I was born at 18 Monteith Row in 1945 and am wondering what kind of property it was in those days. Can anyone help, please?

Ian Gillham | Fri Aug 27 2010

Rudeboy, pity that whatever school you went to never taught you the Queen's English. You may well be understood if you had stuck in at school instead of trying to speak in swahili.

John McMillan | Fri Aug 13 2010

please settle an argument i lived at 52 barrowfield st in the sixties and always thought it was in bridgeton now somone telling me its in parkhead thanks

eleanor cummiskey | Mon May 31 2010

Does anybody know or remember the Wilsons who lived at 24 Marquis Street in the 1950s? Thanks.

John Wilson | Thu Apr 08 2010

I am still looking for information about and a photo of the James Hendry Ltd. factory which was located at 252 Main Street in Bridgeton. The company produced leather products such as machinery belting, fireman's helmets and ladies corsets. It was later called Tullis-Hendry Ltd. I believe it was located near the Bridgeton Cross near Mill Street. Thanks.

John Wyllie | Sat Dec 22 2007

I am trying to find out any information on Sydney Street. My Father was born there in 1921, any information at all would be really helpful. There was no father on his birth extract, and I know think this is impossible to trace but would love to know about his first years living there. thanks

margaret Kenny | Thu Oct 18 2007

Does anyone know how many Cotton Mills there were in Bridgeton Circa 1910-1920? Would appreciate any info on the Cotton Mill(s). AR

Anne Rector | Tue Jul 17 2007

Missed the last comment. Sorry! A.

Anne Rector | Tue Jul 17 2007

Missed the last comment. Sorry! A.

Anne Rector | Tue Jul 17 2007

I enjoyed reading your walking tour account of the Bridgeton area. I am looking for information about and a photo of the James Hendry Ltd. Laminated Leather Belting Company which once stood at 252 Main Street in Bridgeton. I am the great-great-grandson of James Hendry. Thanks.

John Wyllie | Wed Mar 28 2007

As soon as I saw "Cancer on Decline" the first thought I had was: "So many people with it have already died there aren't that many left to die in the last few years." WBR LeoP

School of Pharmacy | Sun Mar 11 2007

Does anybody know of St Mary's school I think it was in Kerr St. I went there between 1953-55. There was some kind of factory beside it. Thanks

Anna | Mon Nov 13 2006

I am trying to find out more about my great grandfather who lived in little brown street in the early 1900s he was west indian and was a herbalist who worked from home and I doubt there would have been a lot of coloured folk in the east end of Glasgow then but maybe I'm wrong does anyone know if there was a bigger west indian community in those days?

nat newman | Thu Apr 13 2006

I AM RESEARCHING MY FAMILY TREE BOTH MY MOTHER AND FATHER CAME FROM GREENVALE STREET IN THE CALTON AND I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW ANY INFORMATION ABOUT THE HIBERNIAN HALL IN GREENVALE STREET AND ANY GOOD BOOKS ON THE EAST END. THANKS

CHRISTINE QUINN | Sat Mar 18 2006

im a typical glaswegian lad, an i tink dat da tenements wer wiked n super cool, i wish i woz der innit bruv man. read ma rap homies: i used 2 liv in glasgow, den i brole my toe, brrraaaaah brraaaap. wkd wkd jungle is massiv. haha lol peace out glaswegian peeps.

rudeboy | Mon Dec 05 2005

Very intrestiong website, very informative, but howver i lived in the tenements and i enjoyed playing with everyone, we were very close, and it was great, not like todays world. Dont u agree with me?

ima scottsman | Mon Dec 05 2005

i'm doing a family tree and found out today that my grandmother was born in dale street she was at that time unmarried and worked as a weaver do you know if ther was a hostel for unmarried mothers in dale street at that time 1883?would appreciate any help you could givr me patricia

patricia | Wed Oct 13 2004

i too was brought up in the east end''calton'' to be precise,and loved every minute of it ,was the happiest days of my life.And to be honest as youngsters we weren't really interested in in all the great biuldings that i see now when i'm visiting the area the people there were the salt of the earth,and i'm glad to say i'll always be an east ender.,c mcdonald

cathy mcdonald | Fri Oct 08 2004

interesting enough and most of the comments were true but to b honest this doesnt even start to tell anything of what it was like to live in the east end of glasgow i was born in sydney street off the gallowgate and i had the best years of my life ther well some of them as a kid if only ther were some phottos of sydney street and its residents of the 50s and 60s and 70s i cant seem to find anything like that enywher its as if sydney street didnt exist and was a figment of my imagination any way i read this and it was nice to read and remember but to understand and feel u have to have lived in the east end for the people who come from ther r some of the best and straightest folk i have ever had the plesure to meet and grow up with thanks you for this little insight but as i said it doesnt tell a fraction the story some of the charactors from there could sell sand to an arab and make him feel they did him a favoure sincerely yours mr anthony mcvey

anthony mcvey | Wed Oct 06 2004

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